The book analyzes the different phases that have characterized the evolution of the policy framework and the economic governance of the European Union and the Euro Area since the end of the global financial crisis (2007-2009). This analysis, which is founded on a careful reconstruction of those “right” or “wrong” economic ideas that have “ruled” the European world until the pandemic shock (to paraphrase the final remarks of Keynes’ General Theory), is crucial to appreciate the importance of the ground-breaking initiatives undertaken by the European policy makers and institutions in 2020: the ultra-expansionary monetary policy and the Next Generation EU. These initiatives are opening an unexpected scenario for the Italian economy, which is the main beneficiary of both initiatives. The aim of the book is to explain why Italy has wasted several chances over the first two decades of this century but cannot miss this new opportunity. To get ready for the post-pandemic world, the time is getting short. Italy must accept the challenge and start its difficult recovery pathway.